So I’ve been watching a lot of OO refactoring screencasts and reading posts and I’m able to say I’ve implemented some of the advice I’ve heard. Life’s all about learning eh? So the main example I want to talk about here is Null objects. Null objects In dynamic languages, and Ruby in particular1 the concept of the lack of something needs to be encapsulated. For example: you’re wrapping the database and no entry exists; what to you return?