Modern Python development

Python dependency management is difficult.

…not because it’s complicated, but rather because the ecosystem has been around for so long, and evolved over time. This means that best practices have come and gone. With that a great deal of confusion has developed, from reading out of date blog posts or stack overflow advice.

I am here to hopefully simplify the process into the following steps:

  1. Install Python: asdf
  2. Managing global packages: pipx
  3. Install a Python dependency manager: poetry
  4. Best practices
  5. My workflow

Throughout this post, I will explain my reasoning behind my suggestions, so that hopefully you will understand why I have made my choices.

The python ecosystem

The Python ecosystem. Items in green represent suggested tools. Items in red represent parts of the system that should not be used.

Install Python

Suggestion: Use pyenv or asdf

pyenv allows multiple versions of Python to be installed at the same time, and selected per directory. This means that if a project depends on Python 3.6 and another depends on Python 3.8, the two can be designated per project.

asdf can be thought of as pyenv but for many languages, and so is interchangeable.

The main reason I suggest using one of these two package managers is then your install isn’t tied to the system Python.

On macOS it’s tempting to use homebrew to install your Python version. This is not a good idea. homebrew regularly updates the python formula to include the latest version. If for example, a CLI package is installed - such as the AWS CLI, it’s tied to a single global Python minor version. When homebrew updates the Python formula, the AWS CLI will stop working.

Managing global packages

Suggestion: Use pipx

pipx is a tool which installs a single binary - for example the AWS CLI - into its own virtual environment. This isolates its packages from everything else. When combined with asdf, this means that Python version upgrades are up to you, and therefore will not break your packages at unpredictable times.

This isolation is especially true for Python dependency managers. They should be installed in a unique environment so that they don’t pick up packages from outside by accident.

Install a Python dependency manager

Suggestion: Use poetry installed via pipx

Python has a long and confusing history when it comes to packaging. Unlike nodejs, go or rust, Python cannot import multiple versions of the same package at the same time.

Python includes a variable sys.modules which is a dictionary of module name to module. Even if a package could be installed using different versions, Python would only refer to it once.

Restricting environments to use only a single package version means that all versioning constraints must be met for a project’s dependencies to be installed.

This all therefore means that we must:

  • isolate projects from each other, so that invalid versions of packages from one project are not installed into other projects; and
  • package dependencies must be strictly resolved, so that projects can include the correct versions.

This is implemented through “virtual environments”1, which configure a python interpreter to look in a specific location for packages. This means that a virtual environment for project A can include different packages than the virtual environment for project B.

Project isolation

Suggestion: Use poetry

If you are using pipenv, see the pipenv section.

Project dependencies should be considered in a separate way to global packages. The same requirement for isolation is shared however.

Project dependency management introduces an additional layer of complexity: version locking. For application-type projects (CLIs, web applications, anything that is not going to be imported as a package by others), package versions should be locked to ensure reproducible behaviour. Library type projects, which are designed to be imported by others - for example requests - should not lock their package versions. The dependency specification of library type projects should be as loose as possible, to reduce complications for projects that import the library.

Note: this does not mean that version constraints cannot be used, but rather that they should be as loose as possible. Typically this means using greater-than constraints rather than less-than.

Two major project dependency managers exist for Python: poetry and pipenv.

The behaviour of these two project dependency managers is approximately the same. They loose specification for project dependencies, which is then locked into a separate file, with exact version constraints. Projects can be set up to install dependencies from this lockfile only to ensure the same dependency versions each time the project is used.

Both projects create a virtual environment behind the scenes. This is effectively invisible to the user. In order to run commands from within that environment, the command must be prefixed by <pipenv or poetry> run <cmd>. Both commands include a way to configure the current shell to include those packages by default, for convenience: <pipenv or poetry> shell.

The reasons to prefer poetry over pipenv may include an element of subjectivity, but here I will remain objective.

The first advantage of poetry is that the manifest format used to define packages: a pyproject.toml file. This converts an imperative script that must be executed ( in order to determine a projects’ dependencies, to a static manifest that can be cached, or parsed without installing the package itself. This manifest file is already supported by pip > 19.0, from 2019 so legacy projects can still use a dependency that has converted to pyproject.toml. This is not the case for pipenv. Its package format is custom and exclusive to pipenv.

poetry includes a custom dependency resolver, which is faster than pipenv‘s. This makes a difference when getting up and running with a new project, but also when adding new packages.

When working on a project, typically you want the local package to be installed in “editable” mode - i.e. a symlink, so that package changes are picked up when running tests. An alternative is to use tox, however this is often slower than running tests against the local package installed in editable mode, as a source package must be generated and installed on each test run.

poetry does this by default. You do not need to specify the local package in the manifest file, and poetry knows what to do.

pipenv supports installing the local package in development mode, but in order to install the local package when “deploying”2, the local package must be included in the [packages] section. In my experience, this does not work. I believe packages in the [packages] section overwrites packages in the [dev-packages] section, meaning that the local package does not get installed in editable mode, and changes are not reflected when running tests.

pipenv does not have any support for publishing packages. This means that if you use pipenv to manage a library project, you must use to define your library dependencies, rather than pyproject.toml. poetry supports building and publishing packages as part of it’s default feature set

Best practices

  • Set the PIP_REQUIRE_VIRTUALENV environment variable to true. This will prevent pip from installing into the global package list, without a virtual environment.
  • Never install packages using pip into the global environment of a Python installation. pipx enforces the use of virtual environments for CLIs, and poetry enforces the use of virtual environments for projects.
  • Never use sudo to install packages with pip. This practice usually indicates that you are doing something wrong.
  • If using pipenv, read the output of the command when it runs, to make sure you are using an expected version of Python for the virtual environment. See the pipenv section for more details.
  • Do not install packages with your system package manager (e.g. apt-get). These packages are usually installed only for the system Python, and you should not use the system Python.
  • If you find yourself using pip install --user then something is wrong. If you are installing a CLI, then use pipx. If you are installing to a project, use the project’s dependency manager.

My workflow

My workflow when setting up a new laptop is as follows:

Install asdf

  1. git clone ~/.asdf --branch <branch e.g. v0.8.0>
  2. add source ${HOME}/.asdf/ to your shell
  3. add python as a language: asdf plugin add python
  4. install some python versions: asdf install python 3.8.9 3.9.1

Install pipx

  1. brew install pipx
  2. Set up pipx to use a fixed version of Python: set the environment variable e.g. PIPX_DEFAULT_PYTHON=$(asdf which python3.9)

Use pipx to install poetry

  1. pipx install poetry

Set up a Python project

  1. poetry init
  2. Add dependencies: poetry add ...

Using pipenv

Virtual environment version

If using pipenv, you must be careful when pipenv sets up the virtual environment for you. It is fairly greedy on which python it picks to use, so I usually create the virtual environment manually before running any other pipenv commands.

In the example below, I set the local python version to 3.6.13 via asdf. I then create a pipenv project, but it chooses to use python 3.9.5 to create the virtual environment rather than 3.6.13 as I specify.

$ asdf local python 3.6.13
$ python --version
Python 3.6.13

$ which python

$ asdf which python

# This step uses python 3.9 to create the virtual environment
$ pipenv install
Creating a virtualenv for this project...                  HERE
Pipfile: /private/tmp/pipenvtesting/Pipfile                ▼▼▼▼▼
Using /Users/<me>/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.5/bin/python3 (3.9.5) to create virtualenv...
⠼ Creating virtual environment...created virtual environment in 245ms
  creator CPython3Posix(dest=/Users/<me>/.local/share/virtualenvs/pipenvtesting-TqUem2-j, clear=False, no_vcs_ignore=False, global=False)
  seeder FromAppData(download=False, pip=bundle, setuptools=bundle, wheel=bundle, via=copy, app_data_dir=/Users/<me>/Library/Application Support/virtualenv)
    added seed packages: pip==21.0.1, setuptools==56.0.0, wheel==0.36.2
  activators BashActivator,CShellActivator,FishActivator,PowerShellActivator,PythonActivator,XonshActivator
✔ Successfully created virtual environment!
Virtualenv location: /Users/<me>/.local/share/virtualenvs/pipenvtesting-TqUem2-j
Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock (3cbc06)...
  🐍   ▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉ 0/0 — 00:00:00
To activate this project's virtualenv, run pipenv shell.
Alternatively, run a command inside the virtualenv with pipenv run.

This is done by setting the python version for the project with asdf: asdf method local python 3.9.5, and creating the pipenv virtual environment: pipenv --python $(asdf which python). In addition, it should be common practice to specify the python version in the Pipfile:

python_version = "3.8"

If the version of python is not found with this configuration, pipenv will prompt you to install it, via either asdf or pyenv.

Another common problem with pipenv is locking packages with Python >= 3.8, and trying to install the project with Python < 3.8. This causes a confusing error:

ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'importlib_metadata'

Python >= 3.8 includes importlib-metadata as part of the standard library. Therefore, locking the packages with a later version of Python does not include this package in the list of dependencies.

  1. Until the __pypackages__ concept is more widely supported. ↩︎

  2. For example building a docker container, or lambda. ↩︎